Community of Inquiry

Community of Inquiry (CoI) is based on social constructivism, where “a group of individuals collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding: (Athabasca University, n.d.). It entails three interconnected main elements of social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence.

Through a DBR study, a contextual understanding of the roles and responsibilities of online educators at the setting of the research was developed. Then the extent of the application of each of the teaching presence dimensions (i.e. design and organization, facilitating discourse, and direct instruction) and their relevant indicators was determined to generate a list of categories for identifying teaching practices in each area of responsibilities of an online educator. These lists of categories are included in the DOOT Observation Forms and can be used by DOOT observers.

For the details of the DBR study and development of the DOOT Protocol based on CoI, refer to link

Source:; reproduced with permission

Social Presence
Cognitive Presence
Teaching Presence